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Marian Diamond, Handwriting, and a Literal External Brain

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Recently, my brainy fellow & I attended a Science on Screen (1) event about some of the most interesting things in the universe (second in amazingness to the universe itself, of course): BRAINS!

After nearly all the seats in the theater were filled, Dr. Wendy Suzuki, professor of Neural Science and Psychology at NYU, started us off with a short lecture on exercise and the brain. She was so energetic & great at storytelling that I was feeling jealous of the lucky NYU students who get to take classes with such an engaging professor. Her enthusiasm was infectious, so much so that she had me wanting to join an aerobics class after she had everyone in the theater stand up & try something she called “intenSati,” which is basically doing goofy aerobics while yelling affirming things like “I am strong now!” and “I am inspired!” in rhythm with cranked dance beats. Dr. Suzuki teaches a course on exercise & the brain where each class starts off with intenSati aerobics. How cool is that?! For someone like me who gets a lot of nervous energy in classrooms, working out my physical jitters right before sitting down to listen to a lecture  would really help me relax & focus on learning. Dr. Suzuki went on to describe how exercise promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampus (new neurons), better memory, quicker recall, improved focus, stronger motivation, and increased creativity (2).

Dr. Suzuki was inspired to research & experiment with exercise by her former professor, Dr. Marian Diamond, who was the subject of the documentary film & main attraction of the night, My Love Affair With the Brain: The Life and Science of Dr. Marian Diamond. Dr. Diamond was one of the first scientists to demonstrate the neuroplasticity (changeability) of the brain. Her early experiments were on rats raised in “enriched” environments (lots of space, many other rats, various opportunities for exercise, toys, mazes, etc) vs. those raised in small, solitary cages with no toys. The rats in enriched environments showed “brain enlargement as a result of brain use” (3). In addition to exercise, Dr. Diamond cited diet, challenges, newness, and love as the keys to brain health and growth.

Marian Diamond is well known for the anatomy courses she taught at UC Berkeley (one of which is available in its entirety on YouTube). In her lectures, she frequently wrote and drew on a blackboard, saying that this gave the students “a chance to think” compared to showing slides.

“And I write things on the board because it gives you a chance to think. If I just flash a slide up there you have no time to put it in what we call your association cortex. So by the time you write it out, you can remember it.” (29:23)

She wanted her students to take notes by hand, because they would be using their “kinesthetic sense” which would help them learn better than if they just read a handout. Explaining her use of the blackboard, she said, “It’s not old fashioned, it’s through years and years of studying education and how you learn–and you learn with kinesthetic sense when you write…” (5:50)

What really stood out about both Wendy and Marian is their passion for understanding the brain. They never take for granted how incredible it is, and their curiosity hasn’t been dulled by all they’ve learned so far. As Dr. Diamond put it, “I’ve spent more than sixty years studying the brain, and it was pure joy. Don’t you just love the brain?”

The documentary showed Dr. Diamond’s charming habit of kicking off a new class (or stupefying small children) by pulling a real, preserved human brain out of a flowery hatbox and giving everyone a look. Guess what Dr. Suzuki was carrying after the film, when she came back onstage to answer questions? A flowery hatbox. Which made sitting in the second row under a bright stage light very worth it, because Wendy has acquired her mentor’s charming habit of pulling a real human brain out of a hatbox and giving everyone a look. A real external brain. Yes! The absolute coolest! Whose brain was it? I have no idea! If we donate our bodies to science maybe someday we too can have our brains carried around in pretty hatboxes for everyone to “ew” and “ah” over. In the meantime, let’s get some exercise & write things down to keep these brains in good shape!

1: Science on Screen happens at arthouse theaters around the US, usually once a month, involving a film & an accompanying lecture by a scientist

2 Check out Wendy Suzuki‘s book, Healthy Brain, Happy Life: A Personal Program to Activate Your Brain and Do Everything Better (also on Scribd). I especially like the premise of this one: she’s almost forty years old, realizes she has no life outside of her work, no friends, and isn’t very happy….so she makes some big changes, starts kicking butt, and writes about it.

3 “Significance of Enrichment,” from Enriching Heredity, by Marian Daimond

 

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Track the Moons of Jupiter

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The honor of idea #1 goes to one of my favorite astronomers: Galileo.

In 1609/1610 he turned one of the earliest refracting telescopes toward Jupiter and observed a few nearby “stars” that seemed to travel along with the planet. In his notebook, he logged the positions of these four satellites relative to Jupiter over the course of several years.

Galileo's Notebooks

One of the earliest entries (before he observed the fourth moon) reads:

“January 11, 1610. It was in this guise and the star nearest to Jupiter was half as large as the other, and most close to the other, whereas on the other evenings the said three stars all appeared to be of the same size and equidistant one from another: from which it appears that there are around Jupiter three wandering stars up to this time invisible to one and all.”

(trans. Charles J. Donovan)

The four “Galilean Moons” were later named Callisto, Ganymede, Io and Europa. We now know that Jupiter has (at least!) sixty-seven moons; the four that Galileo observed are the biggest, and are fairly easy to find if you can get your hands on a small telescope (or some good binoculars). Back when Galileo made his notes, he was documenting the first known example of something orbiting a solar system object other than the Earth (our Moon) or the Sun (the Earth, though this was somewhat controversial at the time). This was one of the first big leaps in our cosmic perspective: Hey, there are other planets with their own moons…not everything revolves around us! A pretty cool use of a notebook, don’t you think?

Jupiter-moons

Source of quote: http://www.dioi.org/galileo/galileo.htm

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